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Chapter 11 East European Civilization: Byzantium and Russia Multiple-Choice Questions 1) A key influence of the Byzantine Empire on Russia was A) written script. B) belief in the Roman and Greek gods. C) a desire for a substantial Mediterranean fleet. D) a tradition of scientific research. Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A because the Byzantine Empire's influence on Russia included the adoption of the written script, specifically the Cyrillic alphabet, which was based on Greek characters and was instrumental in the development of written language and literacy in Russia. 2) What belief did Byzantines share with Russia? A) Constantinople was a holy city. B) A ruler should share power with his military leaders. C) Government should have a powerful ruler with an imperial mission. D) Money and trade breed sinful greed. Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because both the Byzantines and Russia believed in the idea of a powerful ruler with an imperial mission, emphasizing the importance of centralized authority and the ruler's divine right to govern. 3) Which characteristic of the Byzantine Empire was carried on from the Roman Empire? A) reliance on a strong army B) reliance on a powerful Senate C) persecution of Christians D) conflict with Arab raiders Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A because the Byzantine Empire inherited and maintained the Roman tradition of relying on a strong army for defense and expansion, which was crucial for the empire's survival and territorial integrity. 4) Orthodox Christianity held the belief that A) churches should only use the New Testament. B) churches should avoid all forms of decoration. C) saints existed. D) scholarly research was a prime goal of monks. Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because Orthodox Christianity, including the Byzantine and Russian Orthodox traditions, venerates saints as holy individuals who have achieved spiritual perfection and serve as intercessors between believers and God. 5) International trade in Kievan Russia A) ran from north and south. B) was carried by Arab merchants. C) ran from Germany to Asia. D) was based on barter instead of the use of money. Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A because international trade in Kievan Russia was primarily conducted along north-south routes, linking the region with the Baltic Sea to the north and the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic world to the south. 6) The Byzantine Empire was finally overthrown by the A) Arabs. B) Russians. C) Western crusaders. D) Turks. Answer: D Rationale: The correct answer is D because the Byzantine Empire was ultimately overthrown by the Ottoman Turks in 1453, leading to the fall of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine Empire. 7) The Cyrillic alphabet most closely resembles the alphabet used in which language? A) Greek B) Latin C) Arabic D) Scandinavian Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A because the Cyrillic alphabet, used in Russia and other Slavic countries, is derived from the Greek alphabet, particularly the uncial script, which was adapted to suit the phonetic needs of the Slavic languages. 8) Justinian’s law code was A) a military signaling system to guide Greek fire. B) standards recommended for family relations. C) a standardization of Roman law. D) standards for bureaucratic recruitment. Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because Justinian's law code, also known as the Corpus Juris Civilis or the Justinian Code, was a comprehensive compilation and standardization of Roman law, which served as the basis for legal systems in the Byzantine Empire and later influenced legal development in Western Europe. 9) Conversion of Russians to Christianity owed much to A) missionaries sent by the pope. B) pressures brought to bear by King Vladimir. C) the desire of Russian rulers to develop fuller contacts with western Europe. D) conquest by Byzantine troops in the 11th century. Answer: B Rationale: The correct answer is B because the conversion of the Russians to Christianity was largely due to the efforts of King Vladimir the Great, who chose Orthodox Christianity as the official religion of Kievan Rus in 988 CE, thereby establishing Christianity as a central aspect of Russian identity and culture. 10) The split between the Eastern and Western churches occurred in the ________century. A) 9th B) 10th C) 11th D) 12th Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because the Great Schism, which resulted in the split between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, occurred in the 11th century (1054), marking a significant division in Christian theology, practice, and ecclesiastical authority. 11) The capital of the Byzantine Empire was A) Rome. B) Constantinople. C) Alexandria. D) Nicaea. Answer: B Rationale: The correct answer is B because Constantinople, modern-day Istanbul, was the capital of the Byzantine Empire. It served as the political, economic, and cultural center of the empire for over a thousand years. 12) In addition to being emperor, Justinian is known for writing A) a history of Rome. B) poetry. C) an autobiography. D) a law code. Answer: D Rationale: The correct answer is D because Justinian is known for codifying Roman law into the Corpus Juris Civilis, commonly known as the Justinian Code, which became a foundation of legal systems in both the Byzantine Empire and later Western Europe. 13) Later Eastern emperors focused on A) expanding their control in the west. B) building monuments in Constantinople. C) consolidating Eastern territories. D) reconciling with the Persians. Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because later Eastern emperors focused on consolidating and defending existing territories rather than expanding into the west or seeking reconciliation with external powers like the Persians. 14) Unlike previous Roman emperors, Justinian is portrayed as ________ in mosaics. A) both king and priest B) a Germanic warlord C) Sol Invictus D) a philosopher Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A because Justinian is often portrayed in mosaics as both king and priest, emphasizing his dual role as a secular ruler and a religious leader within the Byzantine Empire. 15) “Greek fire” was A) a religious ritual practiced by pagans. B) a reference to the hearth of Vesta. C) a flammable weapon. D) used by the Persians to attack Constantinople. Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because Greek fire was a highly flammable weapon used by the Byzantine Empire, particularly in naval warfare, known for its ability to burn on water and its devastating impact on enemy ships. 16) The Arabs never seriously threatened Constantinople after A) 718 C.E. B) 725 C.E. C) 810 C.E. D) 1450 C.E. Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A because the Arabs never seriously threatened Constantinople after their failed siege of the city in 718 CE, which marked the end of major Arab military expeditions against the Byzantine capital. 17) ________ was responsible for adding Bulgaria to the Byzantine Empire’s territory. A) Justinian B) Theodosius C) Basil II D) Constantine Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because Basil II, also known as Basil the Bulgar-Slayer, was responsible for incorporating Bulgaria into the Byzantine Empire's territory through military conquests and diplomacy during his reign in the 10th and 11th centuries. 18) Eastern Christianity is referred to as ________ Christianity. A) Orthodox B) Catholic C) Coptic D) Nicaean Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A because Eastern Christianity, particularly the Byzantine tradition, is commonly referred to as Orthodox Christianity, emphasizing its adherence to traditional doctrine and practices. 19) The Slavic alphabet developed by Byzantine missionaries is known as A) Pig Latin. B) Coptic. C) Cyrillic. D) Neo-Greek. Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because the Slavic alphabet developed by Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius, is known as the Cyrillic alphabet, named after Saint Cyril. This alphabet was used to write Slavic languages, including Russian, Bulgarian, and Serbian. 20) What year did the mutual excommunication of the pope and Eastern patriarch end? A) 1054 B) 1495 C) 1965 D) 2001 Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because the mutual excommunication between the pope and the Eastern patriarch was resolved in 1965 with the lifting of the excommunications, marking a significant step towards reconciliation between the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. 21) What event occurred during the fourth crusade in 1204? A) Constantinople was taken by the crusaders, and part of the city was destroyed. B) Jerusalem was permanently conquered by Western forces. C) Constantinople joined forces with Western kingdoms to take control of the Middle East. D) Turks conquered Constantinople. Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A because during the Fourth Crusade in 1204, Constantinople was captured by the crusaders, leading to the sacking and partial destruction of the city, rather than achieving the intended goal of recapturing Jerusalem from Muslim control. 22) Which of the following happened to Saint Sophia after the fall of Constantinople in 1453? A) It was destroyed. B) It continued to function as the center of the Orthodox church. C) It became an Islamic mosque. D) It was transformed into an administrative building. Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because after the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Saint Sophia (Hagia Sophia) was converted into an Islamic mosque by the Ottoman Turks, who had captured the city, and it remained a mosque until it was converted into a museum in the 20th century. 23) What characterized Slavic peoples during the time of the Roman Empire? A) They were not familiar with the use of iron. B) They had an advanced political organization with large bureaucracies. C) They were unified under a single king. D) They maintained a polytheistic religion. Answer: D Rationale: The correct answer is D because during the time of the Roman Empire, Slavic peoples maintained a polytheistic religion, worshiping multiple gods and spirits associated with nature, fertility, and celestial bodies. 24) What goal motivated Vladimir I to conquer Byzantine territory in the Crimea? A) to bargain for the hand of the Byzantine emperor’s daughter B) to add to his territory C) to acquire control of lucrative mines D) to control trade routes in the area Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A because Vladimir I, the ruler of Kievan Rus, sought to marry the Byzantine emperor's daughter, which motivated him to conquer Byzantine territory in the Crimea as a bargaining chip in negotiations for the marriage alliance. 25) The Macedonian dynasty extended the Byzantine Empire’s territory into A) North Africa. B) Spain. C) Central Asia and the Balkans. D) Persia. Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because the Macedonian dynasty, which ruled the Byzantine Empire from the late 9th to the mid-11th century, expanded the empire's territory into Central Asia and the Balkans through military conquests and diplomatic alliances. 26) Which of the following art forms was well-developed in Kievan Russia? A) sitar music B) novels C) adventure epics D) paintings of saints Answer: D Rationale: The correct answer is D because in Kievan Russia, paintings of saints were a well-developed art form, often found in churches and religious manuscripts, depicting religious figures and scenes from the Bible and Christian tradition. 27) Which east European region resisted conversion to Orthodox Christianity? A) Bulgaria B) Hungary C) Poland D) Greece Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because Poland resisted conversion to Orthodox Christianity and instead adopted Roman Catholicism, primarily due to political and cultural influences from the Latin West. 28) What was initially the court language of the Eastern empire? A) Latin B) Greek C) Hebrew D) French Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A because initially, Latin was the court language of the Eastern Roman Empire, reflecting the empire's origins in the Roman tradition and its administrative continuity with the Western Roman Empire. 29) Who controlled church organization in the east? A) the Pope B) The Patriarch of Constantinople C) the emperor D) the eastern Pope Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because in the Byzantine Empire, the emperor controlled church organization, including the appointment of bishops and patriarchs, as well as the regulation of religious affairs. 30) Which of the following was one of the controversies that divided the Eastern and Western churches? A) the role of women in church organization B) the duty to perform acts of charity C) the recipe used to make bread for the eucharist D) the use of music during church services Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because one of the controversies that divided the Eastern and Western churches was the use of leavened bread versus unleavened bread in the celebration of the Eucharist, reflecting theological and cultural differences between the two branches of Christianity. 31) Eastern emperors strengthened the military by doing which of the following? A) using mercenaries B) sending troops to train in Sassanid Persia C) creating elaborate armor D) adopting the practices of Marius Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A because Eastern emperors strengthened the military by employing mercenaries, who provided additional manpower and specialized skills in warfare, allowing the Byzantine Empire to maintain and expand its military capabilities. 32) What was the effect of Justinian’s attempts to regain Roman territories? A) The size of the empire doubled. B) The Eastern empire was financially drained. C) The Western empire was strengthened significantly. D) The empire was unsuccessful in expanding in the Black Sea region. Answer: B Rationale: The correct answer is B because Justinian's attempts to regain Roman territories, particularly in the west, resulted in significant financial strain on the Byzantine Empire, depleting its resources and weakening its ability to govern effectively. 33) The Byzantine Empire effectively began in the ________ century. A) 3rd B) 4th C) 5th D) 6th Answer: B Rationale: The correct answer is B because the Byzantine Empire effectively began in the 4th century, following the division of the Roman Empire into the Eastern and Western halves, with Constantinople becoming the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. 34) Which of the following resulted from battles between the Eastern empire and Arab armies? A) expansion of the Byzantine Empire B) the rise of the Sassanid Persian Empire C) a reduction in the size of the Byzantine Empire D) the fall of the Western empire Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because battles between the Eastern empire and Arab armies resulted in territorial losses for the Byzantine Empire, particularly in the Levant and North Africa, leading to a contraction of its territory. 35) What contributed the most to the stability of the Byzantine Empire in the 9th and 10th centuries? A) The ruling dynasty avoided quarrels over the succession. B) The empire had established alliances with neighboring rulers. C) The empire had a strong military. D) The empire lacked expansionistic tendencies. Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A because the stability of the Byzantine Empire in the 9th and 10th centuries was largely attributed to the ruling dynasty's ability to maintain succession without major internal conflicts or power struggles, ensuring continuity of governance and stability. 36) Which of the following contributed the most to the growth of Constantinople as a center of trade? A) It offered low taxes to residents. B) The government offered incentives for merchants to move to Constantinople. C) It was the most well-protected city in the region. D) It was an appealing location. Answer: D Rationale: The correct answer is D because Constantinople's strategic location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, along with its natural harbor and access to major trade routes, contributed significantly to its growth as a center of trade and commerce. 37) How did the loss of the Asiatic provinces affect the Byzantine Empire? A) It reduced the number of men eligible to serve in the military. B) It resulted in a loss of tax revenue and food supplies. C) Trade routes had to be rerouted. D) It marked the rise of the Islamic empire. Answer: B Rationale: The correct answer is B because the loss of the Asiatic provinces resulted in a significant decrease in tax revenue and agricultural production for the Byzantine Empire, leading to economic hardship and resource scarcity. 38) According to legend, the first king of Russia came from which region? A) the Byzantine Empire B) the western Roman Empire C) the Islamic Empire D) Denmark Answer: D Rationale: The correct answer is D because according to legend, the first king of Russia, Rurik, was a Varangian (Viking) chieftain from Scandinavia, specifically from Denmark or Sweden. 39) Which of the following areas was where Kievan Rus’ was centered? A) Moscow B) Siberia C) Ukraine D) Scandinavia Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because Kievan Rus', the early East Slavic state from which modern Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus emerged, was centered in present-day Ukraine, with its capital at Kiev. 40) Which of the following contributed to Vladimir I’s decision to convert to Orthodox Christianity? A) He feared the influence of Roman Catholicism. B) He heard the voice of the angel Gabriel. C) The King of Poland was Orthodox. D) Most of Russia was Orthodox. Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A because Vladimir I, the ruler of Kievan Rus', chose Orthodox Christianity as the official religion of his realm in 988 CE, partly due to geopolitical considerations and concerns about the influence of Roman Catholicism, particularly from Poland and the Latin West. 41) Which of the following caused Russia to decline after 1100? A) the fall of the Byzantine Empire B) the rise of powerful Scandinavian empires C) the rise of a new kingdom in Moscow D) invasions by Turks Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A because after the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, Russia experienced a decline in its political and cultural connections with the Byzantine world, which had been a significant influence on Russian civilization, leading to a period of isolation and internal strife. 42) Which of the following caused the Mongols to end their invasion of Russia and Europe? A) The united forces of European kingdoms drove them away. B) The Polish army defeated them at the Battle of Crimea. C) They agreed to leave as part of a treaty with Russian kings. D) Political difficulties returned their attentions to their homeland. Answer: D Rationale: The correct answer is D because the Mongols, facing internal political challenges and succession disputes, eventually withdrew from their invasion of Russia and Europe to focus on internal affairs and conflicts within their own empire, leading to the end of their expansionist campaigns. 43) Which of the following is a characteristic of both the Byzantine and Russian political systems? A) authoritarian rule under an emperor or king B) an advisory council to the king C) church and state were separate D) elaborate ceremonies Answer: A Rationale: The correct answer is A because both the Byzantine and Russian political systems were characterized by authoritarian rule under a strong central authority, either an emperor in the Byzantine Empire or a tsar in Russia, with centralized power and control over political and administrative affairs. 44) Which of the following traditional Russian practices was changed as Christianity spread? A) giving to the poor B) the rights of kings to appoint religious officials C) the practice of polygamy D) the worship of many saints Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because as Christianity spread in Russia, the practice of polygamy, which was common among some pagan Slavic tribes, was gradually abandoned or suppressed under Christian influence, as the Christian Church advocated for monogamous marriage. 45) Which of the following facilitated the creation of Russian literature? A) A pre-existing written literary tradition B) The development of the Cyrillic alphabet C) A weak tradition of oral history D) The rise of monasteries Answer: B Rationale: The correct answer is B because the development of the Cyrillic alphabet in Russia facilitated the creation of Russian literature by providing a standardized writing system for the language, allowing for the recording and transmission of literary works and cultural heritage. 46) Why did the Russian church try to suppress poplar music? A) It was more popular than religious music. B) Popular music celebrated local heroes. C) Popular music had pre-Christian elements. D) It was used to help support regional protests. Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because the Russian Orthodox Church sought to suppress popular music that contained elements of pre-Christian pagan traditions, viewing such music as incompatible with Christian teachings and potentially undermining religious authority and orthodoxy. 47) In Russia, boyars had authority over which sector of life? A) local religious practices B) villages that they controlled with other aristocrats C) kings D) large areas of land Answer: D Rationale: The correct answer is D because boyars, the Russian aristocracy, had authority over large estates and territories, controlling vast amounts of land and exerting significant influence over economic, political, and social life in medieval Russia. 48) Compared to Western Christianity, Orthodox Christianity differed in the belief that A) emperors had no moral obligations. B) women could hold religious offices. C) monasticism should not be condoned. D) priests could marry. Answer: D Rationale: The correct answer is D because Orthodox Christianity differs from Western Christianity in its allowance for priests to marry, as celibacy is not a requirement for Orthodox clergy, whereas it is generally enforced in Western Christianity, particularly within the Roman Catholic Church. 49) Unlike Western Christianity, Orthodox Christianity emphasized a A) belief in charity to the poor. B) belief in a church hierarchy. C) rejection of the idea of the pope as sole head of the church. D) rejection of the idea that Christianity was superior to Islam. Answer: C Rationale: The correct answer is C because Orthodox Christianity emphasizes a decentralized church hierarchy with multiple patriarchs and autocephalous churches, rejecting the idea of the pope as the sole head of the church, which is a central tenet of Western Christianity, particularly Roman Catholicism. 50) Compared to western Europe between 900 and 1200, which of the following could be found in eastern Europe? A) an enslaved peasantry B) limited iron manufacturing C) widespread literacy D) Orthodox Christian missionary activity Answer: D Rationale: Because during the period between 900 and 1200, eastern Europe experienced significant Orthodox Christian missionary activity, particularly spearheaded by the Byzantine Empire, which sought to convert Slavic peoples to Christianity and establish Orthodox Christian churches and institutions in the region. Short Answer Questions 51) Describe the contributions of the emperor Justinian. Answer: Emperor Justinian, who ruled the Byzantine Empire from 527 to 565 CE, made several significant contributions. He is best known for his efforts to restore the territories of the Western Roman Empire through military campaigns, known as the reconquest of the Roman Empire. Justinian's most enduring legacy is perhaps his codification of Roman law, known as the Corpus Juris Civilis or Justinian Code. This legal reform systematized and clarified existing laws, serving as a foundation for legal systems in many modern European countries. Additionally, Justinian initiated ambitious building projects, including the construction of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, which remains one of the world's architectural marvels. 52) List three distinctive features of the Orthodox version of Christianity. Answer: Three distinctive features of Orthodox Christianity include: 1. Emphasis on Tradition: Orthodox Christianity places a strong emphasis on tradition, including the teachings of the early Church Fathers, liturgical practices, and doctrinal formulations of the Seven Ecumenical Councils. Tradition is considered essential for understanding and interpreting Scripture. 2. Conciliar Governance: Orthodox Christianity is governed through a conciliar structure, where decisions are made collectively by bishops in councils rather than by a single authority figure, such as a pope. The Ecumenical Councils, where bishops from across the Christian world gather to address theological and doctrinal issues, are central to the governance of the Orthodox Church. 3. Iconography and Symbolism: Orthodox Christianity utilizes icons as an integral part of worship and spiritual life. Icons are sacred images that serve as windows to the divine, facilitating contemplation and prayer. The veneration of icons reflects Orthodox beliefs in the incarnation of Christ and the presence of the divine in the material world. 53) Discuss the effects of the Tatar invasion on Russia. Answer: The Tatar invasion, led by the Mongol Empire under the leadership of Batu Khan, had significant and enduring effects on Russia. The invasion, which began in the 13th century, resulted in the subjugation of Russian principalities under Tatar rule, establishing the Mongol-Tatar domination known as the Golden Horde. This period of Tatar rule brought about economic and social disruptions, including heavy taxation, political instability, and the imposition of tribute on the Russian people. However, the Mongol-Tatar period also facilitated cultural and economic exchanges between Russia and the East, contributing to the development of trade routes and the spread of Eastern influences in Russian society. 54) Why did Kievan Russia decline after about 1200? Answer: Kievan Russia experienced a decline after about 1200 due to various factors. These include internal strife and political fragmentation among the princely states, which weakened central authority and led to conflicts over succession and territorial disputes. Additionally, external pressures, such as invasions by nomadic peoples from the steppe, including the Mongols, further destabilized the region and hindered economic and social development. The decline of Kievan Russia paved the way for the rise of new centers of power, such as Moscow, and the emergence of the Grand Duchy of Moscow as the dominant political entity in the region. 55) Describe the contributions of the Byzantine state to Russian civilization. Answer: The Byzantine state made several contributions to Russian civilization, particularly in the realms of religion, culture, and governance. The Byzantine Empire, as the successor to the Eastern Roman Empire, served as a conduit for the transmission of Orthodox Christianity to the Slavic peoples of Russia, who adopted Byzantine liturgical practices, religious art, and theological teachings. Byzantine influence also extended to architecture, with Russian churches and monasteries modeled after Byzantine prototypes, such as the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. Furthermore, Byzantine administrative practices, including the use of Greek as the language of governance and the adoption of Byzantine legal traditions, influenced the development of Russian political institutions and statecraft. Overall, the Byzantine state played a crucial role in shaping the religious, cultural, and political identity of Russian civilization. Essay Questions 56) What were the principal ways in which the Byzantine Empire maintained patterns of the late Roman Empire? What were the principal differences in patterns? Answer: The Byzantine Empire maintained several patterns of the late Roman Empire, including: 1. Administrative Continuity: The Byzantine Empire preserved the administrative structures and bureaucratic apparatus of the late Roman Empire, maintaining a centralized government with appointed officials overseeing various administrative functions. 2. Legal Tradition: Byzantium continued the legal traditions of the Roman Empire, particularly through the codification and preservation of Roman laws in the Corpus Juris Civilis, or Justinian Code. 3. Christian Influence: Like the late Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire adopted Christianity as the state religion, exerting significant influence over religious life and institutions. Principal differences in patterns include: 1. Greek Language and Culture: While Latin was the dominant language and cultural influence in the late Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire adopted Greek as its primary language and cultural medium, leading to the Hellenization of Byzantine society. 2. Shift in Political Focus: The Byzantine Empire shifted its political focus from the western territories of the Roman Empire to the eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans, emphasizing defense against external threats and diplomatic relations with neighboring powers. 3. Religious Schism: The Byzantine Empire experienced a religious schism with the Roman Catholic Church, resulting in the Great Schism of 1054 and the establishment of the Eastern Orthodox Church as distinct from the Roman Catholic Church. 57) After Rome’s fall, why did a more elaborate civilization persist in eastern Europe than in the West? Answer: After the fall of Rome, a more elaborate civilization persisted in eastern Europe, particularly in the Byzantine Empire, for several reasons: 1. Byzantine Legacy: The Byzantine Empire, as the successor to the Eastern Roman Empire, preserved many aspects of Roman civilization, including administrative structures, legal traditions, and cultural heritage, contributing to the continuity of civilization in the East. 2. Byzantine Influence: Eastern Europe, especially regions under Byzantine influence, benefited from the cultural, religious, and economic exchanges facilitated by the Byzantine Empire, which provided stability and continuity in the face of external pressures. 3. Christian Orthodoxy: The spread of Orthodox Christianity in eastern Europe, promoted by Byzantine missionaries and religious institutions, fostered cultural cohesion and contributed to the development of a distinct Eastern Christian civilization. 58) What did Russia imitate from Byzantine civilization and why? Answer: Russia imitated several aspects of Byzantine civilization, primarily due to the influence of Orthodox Christianity and cultural exchanges with the Byzantine Empire. Some key elements that Russia adopted from Byzantium include: 1. Orthodox Christianity: Russia adopted Orthodox Christianity from Byzantium, which became the official religion of the state under Prince Vladimir in 988 CE. The Russian Orthodox Church modeled its religious practices, liturgy, and ecclesiastical organization after the Byzantine Orthodox Church. 2. Architecture and Art: Russian architecture and art were heavily influenced by Byzantine styles, particularly in the design of churches, iconography, and religious frescoes. Byzantine architectural features, such as domes, arches, and mosaics, were prominent in Russian church construction. 3. Administrative Practices: Russia adopted Byzantine administrative practices, including bureaucratic structures, legal systems, and diplomatic protocols, which facilitated governance and statecraft in medieval Russia. Overall, Russia imitated aspects of Byzantine civilization to strengthen its cultural and religious identity, establish diplomatic ties with the Byzantine Empire, and enhance its political and administrative systems. 59) What caused the split between the Eastern and Western branches of Christianity? Answer: The split between the Eastern and Western branches of Christianity, known as the Great Schism of 1054, was primarily caused by theological, political, and cultural differences that had been brewing for centuries. Some key factors include: 1. Theological Disputes: Differences in theological interpretation and doctrine, such as the nature of the Trinity, the role of the papacy, and the use of icons in worship, created tensions between Eastern and Western Christians. 2. Papal Authority: The growing authority of the papacy in the West, particularly the claims of papal supremacy over all Christian churches, clashed with the autonomy and authority of the Eastern Orthodox patriarchs. 3. Cultural and Linguistic Differences: Cultural and linguistic differences between the Latinspeaking West and the Greek-speaking East contributed to misunderstandings and divisions within the Christian community. 4. Political Rivalries: Political rivalries and power struggles between the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) and the Western powers, as well as disputes over jurisdictional authority, further strained relations between East and West. 60) How did the politics and culture of eastern Europe differ from those of the West in the centuries after Rome’s fall? Answer: In the centuries after Rome's fall, the politics and culture of eastern Europe differed significantly from those of the West due to various historical, geographical, and cultural factors: 1. Byzantine Influence: Eastern Europe, particularly regions under Byzantine influence, inherited and preserved many aspects of Roman and Byzantine civilization, including administrative structures, legal traditions, and Orthodox Christianity. This Byzantine legacy shaped the political and cultural development of the East. 2. Orthodox Christianity: Eastern Europe embraced Orthodox Christianity, which emphasized a decentralized church hierarchy, liturgical practices, and theological doctrines distinct from those of the Roman Catholic Church in the West. The spread of Orthodoxy contributed to cultural cohesion and identity in the East. 3. Cultural Exchange: Eastern Europe served as a crossroads for cultural exchange between the East and West, facilitating interactions and exchanges of ideas, technologies, and goods between different civilizations, including Byzantine, Slavic, Turkic, and Baltic cultures. 4. Feudalism vs. Byzantine Administration: While feudalism emerged as the dominant political and social system in the West, characterized by decentralized power structures and lord-vassal relationships, Eastern Europe, particularly under Byzantine influence, maintained centralized administrative systems with strong state control and bureaucratic governance. Overall, the politics and culture of eastern Europe retained distinct Byzantine and Orthodox characteristics, fostering a unique identity separate from the feudal societies and Latin Christianity of the West. Test Bank for World History in Brief: Major Patterns of Change and Continuity Peter N. Stearns 9780205896301, 9780134085623

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